Joshua Cooper, MD, FACS

Transgender (Male to Female)...


Transgender (Male to Female) Breast Augmentation

For many transgender patients, breast augmentation is an important step in establishing a feminine identity. This procedure allows trans women to present themselves as women more easily in public and private. From his experience with caring for transgender patients, Dr. Cooper realizes that the chest anatomy of trans women differs from genetic females, and this is taken into account. Dr. Cooper finds it very rewarding to help transgender patients during their gender reassignment journey.

Personalized Treatment

During your pre-operative meetings, Dr. Cooper takes time to review and understand your goals and expectations for breast augmentation. He performs an exam of the chest to determine the best implant size to fit your body frame. He will discuss the differences between implant types, including saline and silicone gel, implant sizes and which surgical approach is right for you. Additionally, Dr. Cooper will discuss with you the differences and risks associated with these options. It is recommended that transgender patients take hormones for at least a year in order to increase breast size as much as possible.

The Procedure

Performed as an outpatient basis, the one to two hour procedure requires general anesthesia by a board-certified anesthesiologist. Dr. Cooper usually augments the transgender patient’s breasts through an infra-mammary fold incision. Depending on the amount of breast tissue and chest anatomy, the implant will be placed in either the subglandular position or partially behind the pectoralis muscle.


Patients can expect to have soreness and swelling after the operation. The breasts usually feel tight and firm for several days. It is not uncommon to have some changes in sensation in the immediate post-operative period. This resolves with time. Recovery is often quicker than many expect, and many patients return to most of their normal activities within just a few days.


Complications following breast augmentation surgery in the post-operative period are uncommon. Some complications that may occur include infection, changes in nipple sensation, implant leak or deflation, rippling of the implant, and capsular contracture, an abnormal thickening of the scar tissue surrounding the implants.


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